Introduction ::MauritaniaBackground:Independent from France in 1960, Mauritania annexed the southern third of the former Spanish Sahara (now Western Sahara) in 1976 but relinquished it after three years of raids by the Polisario guerrilla front seeking independence for the territory. Maaouya Ould Sid Ahmed TAYA seized power in a coup in 1984 and ruled Mauritania with a heavy hand for more than two decades. A series of presidential elections that he held were widely seen as flawed. A bloodless coup in August 2005 deposed President TAYA and ushered in a military council that oversaw a transition to democratic rule. Independent candidate Sidi Ould Cheikh ABDALLAHI was inaugurated in April 2007 as Mauritania's first freely and fairly elected president. His term ended prematurely in August 2008 when a military junta led by General Mohamed Ould Abdel AZIZ deposed him and installed a military council government. AZIZ was subsequently elected president in July 2009 and sworn in the following month. AZIZ sustained injuries from an accidental shooting by his own troops in October 2012 but has continued to maintain his authority. The country continues to experience ethnic tensions among its black population (Afro-Mauritanians) and white and black Moor (Arab-Berber) communities, and is having to confront a growing terrorism threat by al-Qa'ida in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM).Geography ::MauritaniaLocation:Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Senegal and Western SaharaGeographic coordinates:20 00 N, 12 00 WArea:total: 1,030,700 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 29land: 1,030,700 sq kmwater: 0 sq kmArea - comparative:slightly larger than three times the size of New MexicoLand boundaries:total: 5,074 kmborder countries: Algeria 463 km, Mali 2,237 km, Senegal 813 km, Western Sahara 1,561 kmCoastline:754 kmMaritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nmcontiguous zone: 24 nmexclusive economic zone: 200 nmcontinental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental marginClimate:desert; constantly hot, dry, dustyTerrain:mostly barren, flat plains of the Sahara; some central hillsElevation extremes:lowest point: Sebkhet Te-n-Dghamcha -5 mhighest point: Kediet Ijill 915 mNatural resources:iron ore, gypsum, copper, phosphate, diamonds, gold, oil, fishLand use:arable land: 0.44%permanent crops: 0.01%other: 99.55% (2011)Irrigated land:450.1 sq km (2004)Total renewable water resources:11.4 cu km (2011)Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 1.35 cu km/yr (7%/2%/91%)per capita: 420.2 cu m/yr (2005)Natural hazards:hot, dry, dust/sand-laden sirocco wind blows primarily in March and April; periodic droughtsEnvironment - current issues:overgrazing, deforestation, and soil erosion aggravated by drought are contributing to desertification; limited natural freshwater resources away from the Senegal, which is the only perennial river; locust infestationEnvironment - international agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whalingsigned, but not ratified: none of the selected agreementsGeography - note:most of the population is concentrated in the cities of Nouakchott and Nouadhibou and along the Senegal River in the southern part of the countryPeople and Society ::MauritaniaNationality:noun: Mauritanian(s)adjective: MauritanianEthnic groups:mixed Moor/black 40%, Moor 30%, black 30%Languages:Arabic (official and national), Pulaar, Soninke, Wolof (all national languages), French, HassaniyaReligions:Muslim (official) 100%Population:3,437,610 (July 2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 133Age structure:0-14 years: 39.8% (male 686,596/female 681,224)15-24 years: 20% (male 335,998/female 351,367)25-54 years: 32.2% (male 512,045/female 595,195)55-64 years: 4.5% (male 68,960/female 84,303)65 years and over: 3.5% (male 51,736/female 70,186) (2013 est.)Dependency ratios:total dependency ratio: 76.3 %youth dependency ratio: 70.7 %elderly dependency ratio: 5.6 %potential support ratio: 17.9 (2013)Median age:total: 19.8 yearsmale: 18.8 yearsfemale: 20.7 years (2013 est.)Population growth rate:2.29% (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 37Birth rate:32.31 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 36Death rate:8.5 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 82Net migration rate:-0.87 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 146Urbanization:urban population: 41.5% of total population (2011)rate of urbanization: 2.91% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)Major urban areas - population:NOUAKCHOTT (capital) 709,000 (2009)Sex ratio:at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female15-24 years: 0.96 male(s)/female25-54 years: 0.86 male(s)/female55-64 years: 0.82 male(s)/female65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/femaletotal population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2013 est.)Mother's mean age at first birth:21.9 (2001 est.)Maternal mortality rate:510 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)country comparison to the world: 19Infant mortality rate:total: 57.48 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 31male: 62.51 deaths/1,000 live birthsfemale: 52.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)Life expectancy at birth:total population: 61.91 yearscountry comparison to the world: 188male: 59.65 yearsfemale: 64.23 years (2013 est.)Total fertility rate:4.15 children born/woman (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 36Contraceptive prevalence rate:9.3% (2007)Health expenditures:4.4% of GDP (2010)country comparison to the world: 157Physicians density:0.13 physicians/1,000 population (2009)Hospital bed density:0.4 beds/1,000 population (2006)Drinking water source:improved:urban: 52% of populationrural: 48% of populationtotal: 50% of populationunimproved:urban: 48% of populationrural: 52% of populationtotal: 50% of population (2010 est.)Sanitation facility access:improved:urban: 51% of populationrural: 9% of populationtotal: 26% of populationunimproved:urban: 49% of populationrural: 91% of populationtotal: 74% of population (2010 est.)HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:0.7% (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 60HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:14,000 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 87HIV/AIDS - deaths:fewer than 1,000 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 76Major infectious diseases:degree of risk: very highfood or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fevervectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue feverrespiratory disease: meningococcal meningitisanimal contact disease: rabies (2013)Obesity - adult prevalence rate:12.7% (2008)country comparison to the world: 127Children under the age of 5 years underweight:15.9% (2008)country comparison to the world: 48Education expenditures:3.9% of GDP (2011)country comparison to the world: 114Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and writetotal population: 58.6%male: 65.3%female: 52% (2011 est.)School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 8 yearsmale: 8 yearsfemale: 8 years (2011)Child labor - children ages 5-14:total number: 127,251percentage: 16 % (2007 est.)Government ::MauritaniaCountry name:conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Mauritaniaconventional short form: Mauritanialocal long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Islamiyah al Muritaniyahlocal short form: MuritaniyahGovernment type:military juntaCapital:name: Nouakchottgeographic coordinates: 18 04 N, 15 58 Wtime difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)Administrative divisions:13 regions (wilayas, singular - wilaya); Adrar, Assaba, Brakna, Dakhlet Nouadhibou, Gorgol, Guidimaka, Hodh ech Chargui, Hodh el Gharbi, Inchiri, Nouakchott, Tagant, Tiris Zemmour, TrarzaIndependence:28 November 1960 (from France)National holiday:Independence Day, 28 November (1960)Constitution:12 July 1991Legal system:mixed legal system of Islamic and French civil lawInternational law organization participation:has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCtSuffrage:18 years of age; universalExecutive branch:chief of state: President Mohamed Ould Abdel AZIZ (since 5 August 2009); note - AZIZ, who deposed democratically elected President Sidi Ould Cheikh ABDELLAHI in a coup and installed himself as President of the High State Council on 6 August 2008, retired from the military and stepped down from the presidency in April 2009 to run for president; he was elected president in an election held on 18 July 2009head of government: Prime Minister Moulaye Ould Mohamed LAGHDAF (since 14 August 2008)cabinet: Council of Ministers(For more information visit the World Leaders website )elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held on 18 July 2009 (next to be held by 2014)election results: percent of vote - Mohamed Ould Abdel AZIZ 52.6%, Messaoud Ould BOULKHEIR 16.3%, Ahmed Ould DADDAH 13.7%, other 17.4%Legislative branch:bicameral legislature consists of the Senate or Majlis al-Shuyukh (56 seats; 53 members elected by municipal leaders and 3 members elected for Mauritanians abroad to serve six-year terms; a portion of seats up for election every two years) and the National Assembly or Al Jamiya Al Wataniya (95 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)elections: Senate - last held in November 2009; National Assembly - last held on 19 November and 3 December 2006 (election scheduled for 16 October 2011 postponed, rescheduled for 31 March 2012 and then postponed indefinitely)election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CPM (Coalition of Majority Parties) 45, COD 7, RNRD-TAWASSOUL 4; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CPM 63 (UPR 50, PRDR 7, UDP 3, HATEM-PMUC 2, RD 1), COD 27 (RFD 9, UFP 6, APP 6, PNDD-ADIL 6), RNRD-TAWASSOUL 4, FP 1Judicial branch:highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (subdivided into 1 criminal and 2 civil chambers, each with a president and 5 counselors); Constitutional Council (consists of 6 members)judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president appointed by the president of the republic to serve a 5-year renewable term; Constitutional Council members appointed - 3 by the president of the republic, 2 by the president of the National Assembly, and 1 by the president of the Senate; members serve single, 9-year terms with one-third of membership renewed every 3 yearssubordinate courts: High Court of Justice (cases involving treason and criminal acts of high government officials); courts of appeal; wilaya (regional) courts (located at the headquarters of each of the 13 regions); commercial and labor courts; criminal courts; moughataa (district) courts; informal/customary courtsPolitical parties and leaders:Alternative or El-Badil [Mohamed Yahdhi Ould MOCTAR HACEN]Coalition of Majority Parties or CPM (parties supporting the regime including PRDR, UPR, RD, HATEM-PMUC, UCD)Coordination of Democratic Opposition or COD (coalition of opposition political parties opposed to the government including APP, RFD, UFP, PNDD-ADIL, Alternative or El-Badil)Democratic Renewal or RD [Moustapha Ould ABDEIDARRAHMANE]Mauritanian Party for Unity and Change or HATEM-PMUC [Saleh Ould HANENA]National Pact for Democracy and Development or PNDD-ADIL [Yahya Ould Ahmed El WAGHEF] (independents formerly supporting President Abdellahi)National Rally for Freedom, Democracy and Equality or RNDLENational Rally for Reform and Development or RNRD-TAWASSOUL [Mohamed Jamil MANSOUR] (moderate Islamists)Popular Front or FP [Ch'bih Ould CHEIKH MALAININE]Popular Progressive Alliance or APP [Messaoud Ould BOULKHEIR]Rally of Democratic Forces or RFD [Ahmed Ould DADDAH]Republican Party for Democracy and Renewal or PRDR [Mintata Mint HDEID]Socialist and Democratic Unity Party or PUDSUnion for Democracy and Progress or UDP [Naha Mint MOUKNASS]Union for the Republic or UPRUnion of Democratic Center or UCD [Cheikh Sid'Ahmed Ould BABA]Union of the Forces for Progress or UFP [Mohamed Ould MAOULOUD]Political pressure groups and leaders:General Confederation of Mauritanian Workers or CGTM [Abdallahi Ould MOHAMED, secretary general]Independent Confederation of Mauritanian Workers or CLTM [Samory Ould BEYE]Mauritanian Workers Union or UTM [Mohamed Ely Ould BRAHIM, secretary general]other: Arab nationalists; Ba'thists; IslamistsInternational organization participation:ABEDA, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, AU, CAEU (candidate), EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTODiplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Mohamed Lemine El HAYCENchancery: 2129 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008telephone:  (202) 232-5700 through 5701FAX:  (202) 319-2623Diplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Jo Ellen POWELLembassy: 288 Rue Abdallaye, Rue 42-100 (between Presidency building and Spanish Embassy), Nouakchottmailing address: BP 222, Nouakchotttelephone:  4525-2660 through 2663FAX:  4525-1592Flag description:green with a yellow five-pointed star above a yellow, horizontal crescent; the closed side of the crescent is down; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam; the gold color stands for the sands of the SaharaNational symbol(s):star and crescentNational anthem:name: ""Hymne National de la Republique Islamique de Mauritanie"" (National Anthem of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania)lyrics/music: Baba Ould CHEIKH/traditional, arranged by Tolia NIKIPROWETZKYnote: adopted 1960; the unique rhythm of the Mauritanian anthem makes it particularly challenging to singEconomy ::MauritaniaEconomy - overview:Half the population still depends on agriculture and livestock for a livelihood, even though many of the nomads and subsistence farmers were forced into the cities by recurrent droughts in the 1970s and 1980s. Mauritania has extensive deposits of iron ore, which account for nearly 40% of total exports. The nation's coastal waters are among the richest fishing areas in the world but overexploitation by foreigners threatens this key source of revenue. The country's first deepwater port opened near Nouakchott in 1986. Before 2000, drought and economic mismanagement resulted in a buildup of foreign debt. In February 2000, Mauritania qualified for debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative and nearly all of its foreign debt has since been forgiven. A new investment code approved in December 2001 improved the opportunities for direct foreign investment. Mauritania and the IMF agreed to a three-year Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) arrangement in 2006. Mauritania made satisfactory progress, but the IMF, World Bank, and other international actors suspended assistance and investment in Mauritania after the August 2008 coup. Since the presidential election in July 2009, donors have resumed assistance. Oil prospects, while initially promising, have largely failed to materialize, and the government has placed a priority on attracting private investment to spur economic growth. The government also emphasizes reduction of poverty, improvement of health and education, and privatization of the economy. Economic growth remained around 5% in 2010-12, mostly because of rising prices of gold, copper, iron ore, and oil.GDP (purchasing power parity):$7.824 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 157$7.356 billion (2011 est.)$7.082 billion (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGDP (official exchange rate):$4.199 billion (2012 est.)GDP - real growth rate:6.4% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 383.9% (2011 est.)5.1% (2010 est.)GDP - per capita (PPP):$2,200 (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 190$2,100 (2011 est.)$2,000 (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGross national saving:17.1% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 9017.5% of GDP (2011 est.)15.4% of GDP (2010 est.)GDP - composition, by end use:household consumption: 87.7%government consumption: 16.9%investment in fixed capital: 30.5%investment in inventories: 0.1%exports of goods and services: 68.6%imports of goods and services: -103.9%(2012 est.)GDP - composition, by sector of origin:agriculture: 14.9%industry: 48%services: 37.1% (2012 est.)Agriculture - products:dates, millet, sorghum, rice, corn; cattle, sheepIndustries:fish processing, oil production, mining (iron ore, gold, and copper)note: gypsum deposits have never been exploitedIndustrial production growth rate:9% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 15Labor force:1.318 million (2007)country comparison to the world: 134Labor force - by occupation:agriculture: 50%industry: 10%services: 40% (2001 est.)Unemployment rate:30% (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 18220% (2004 est.)Population below poverty line:40% (2004 est.)Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 2.5%highest 10%: 29.5% (2000)Distribution of family income - Gini index:39 (2000)country comparison to the world: 6737.3 (1995)Budget:revenues: $1.143 billionexpenditures: $1.263 billion (2012 est.)Taxes and other revenues:27.2% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 110Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):-2.9% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 112Fiscal year:calendar yearInflation rate (consumer prices):6.5% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 1725.7% (2011 est.)Central bank discount rate:9% (31 December 2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 1712% (31 December 2007)Commercial bank prime lending rate:17% (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 2917% (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of domestic credit:$1.723 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 140$1.741 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Market value of publicly traded shares:$NACurrent account balance:-$659.8 million (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 103-$549.4 million (2011 est.)Exports:$2.66 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 136$2.799 billion (2011 est.)Exports - commodities:iron ore, fish and fish products, gold, copper, petroleumExports - partners:China 48.6%, Italy 7.5%, Japan 7%, Cote dIvoire 6.7%, France 4.7%, Spain 4.1% (2012)Imports:$2.916 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 146$2.656 billion (2011 est.)Imports - commodities:machinery and equipment, petroleum products, capital goods, foodstuffs, consumer goodsImports - partners:China 12.9%, Netherlands 10.5%, US 7.8%, France 7.7%, Brazil 5.6%, Germany 5.5%, Spain 5.1%, Belgium 4.7% (2012)Debt - external:$2.897 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 139$2.709 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Exchange rates:ouguiyas (MRO) per US dollar -296.6 (2012 est.)281.12 (2011 est.)275.89 (2010 est.)262.4 (2009)238.2 (2008)Energy ::MauritaniaElectricity - production:474 million kWh (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 161Electricity - consumption:440.8 million kWh (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 169Electricity - exports:0 kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 103Electricity - imports:0 kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 213Electricity - installed generating capacity:253,000 kW (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 151Electricity - from fossil fuels:61.7% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 133Electricity - from nuclear fuels:0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 140Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:38.3% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 58Electricity - from other renewable sources:0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 159Crude oil - production:7,738 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 82Crude oil - exports:10,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 58Crude oil - imports:0 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 97Crude oil - proved reserves:20 million bbl (1 January 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 85Refined petroleum products - production:0 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 207Refined petroleum products - consumption:18,120 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 133Refined petroleum products - exports:0 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 202Refined petroleum products - imports:12,870 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 125Natural gas - production:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 167Natural gas - consumption:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 173Natural gas - exports:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 147Natural gas - imports:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 98Natural gas - proved reserves:28.32 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 71Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:2.89 million Mt (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 141Communications ::MauritaniaTelephones - main lines in use:72,300 (2011)country comparison to the world: 157Telephones - mobile cellular:3.315 million (2011)country comparison to the world: 122Telephone system:general assessment: limited system of cable and open-wire lines, minor microwave radio relay links, and radiotelephone communications stations; mobile-cellular services expanding rapidlydomestic: Mauritel, the national telecommunications company, was privatized in 2001 but remains the monopoly provider of fixed-line services; fixed-line teledensity 2 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular network coverage extends mainly to urban areas with a teledensity of roughly 100 per 100 persons; mostly cable and open-wire lines; a domestic satellite telecommunications system links Nouakchott with regional capitalsinternational: country code - 222; satellite earth stations - 3 (1 Intelsat - Atlantic Ocean, 2 Arabsat); fiber-optic and Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) cables for Internet access (2009)Broadcast media:broadcast media state-owned; 1 state-run TV and 1 state-run radio network; Television de Mauritanie, the state-run TV station, has an additional 6 regional TV stations that provide local programming (2008)Internet country code:.mrInternet hosts:22 (2012)country comparison to the world: 220Internet users:75,000 (2009)country comparison to the world: 170Transportation ::MauritaniaAirports:30 (2013)country comparison to the world: 116Airports - with paved runways:total: 92,438 to 3,047 m: 51,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2013)Airports - with unpaved runways:total: 212,438 to 3,047 m: 11,524 to 2,437 m: 10914 to 1,523 m: 8under 914 m:2 (2013)Railways:728 kmstandard gauge: 728 km 1.435-m gauge (2008)Roadways:total: 11,066 kmcountry comparison to the world: 133paved: 2,966 kmunpaved: 8,100 km (2006)Waterways:(some navigation is possible on the Senegal River) (2011)Ports and terminals:Nouadhibou, NouakchottMilitary ::MauritaniaMilitary branches:Mauritanian Armed Forces: Army, Mauritanian Navy (Marine Mauritanienne; includes naval infantry), Islamic Republic of Mauritania Air Group (Groupement Aerienne Islamique de Mauritanie, GAIM) (2013)Military service age and obligation:18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)Manpower available for military service:males age 16-49: 718,713females age 16-49: 804,622 (2010 est.)Manpower fit for military service:males age 16-49: 480,042females age 16-49: 581,473 (2010 est.)Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:male: 36,116female: 36,826 (2010 est.)Military expenditures:5.5% of GDP (2006)country comparison to the world: 13Transnational Issues ::MauritaniaDisputes - international:Mauritanian claims to Western Sahara remain dormantRefugees and internally displaced persons:refugees (country of origin): 26,000 (Western Saharan - Sahrawis) (2012); 69,676 (Mali) (2013)Trafficking in persons:current situation: Mauritania is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to conditions of forced labor and sex trafficking; adults and children from traditional slave castes are subjected to slavery-related practices rooted in ancestral master-slave relationships; Mauritanian boys called talibe are trafficked within the country by religious teachers for forced begging; Mauritanian girls, as well as girls from Mali, Senegal, The Gambia, and other West African countries are forced into domestic servitude; Mauritanian women and girls are forced into prostitution in the country or transported to countries in the Middle East for the same purposetier rating: Tier 3 - Mauritania does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; after the previous year's unprecedented progress in prosecuting and convicting trafficking offenders, the government has not convicted any traffickers; the government has not provided adequate protective services to victims or ensure their referral to NGOs, which provide the majority of care to trafficking victims and generally do not receive government financial support; the absence of measures in place to identify trafficking victims among vulnerable populations may have led to victims being punished for acts committed as a result of being trafficked; the effectiveness of the 2007 anti-slavery law remains impaired because the slaves, many of whom are illiterate, are first required to file a legal complaint, and the government provides no programs to assist victims in lodging slavery complaints (2013)"
The World Factbook. 2014.
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Mauritania — Mauritania, nombre oficial República Islámica de Mauritania (Yumhuriya Islamiya Mauritaniya), es un país en el noroeste de África. Tiene una extensa costa en el Océano Atlántico, entre Marruecos en el norte y Senegal en el sur. * * * ► Antigua… … Enciclopedia Universal
Mauritania — [môr΄ə tā′nē ə, môr΄ətān′yə] country in NW Africa, on the Atlantic: formerly a French protectorate & colony, it became independent in 1960: 398,000 sq mi (1,030,816 sq km); pop. 1,864,000; cap. Nouakchott: official name Islamic Republic of… … English World dictionary
Mauritanĭa — (a. Geogr.), Landschaft in Nordwestafrika, grenzte im Osten an Numidien, im Süden an Gätulien, im Westen an den Atlantischen Ocean u. im Norden an das Mittelmeer; jetzt Fez u. Marokko, nebst einem Theil von Algerien. Zur Zeit als M. zum Römischen … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Mauritanĭa — Mauritanĭa, s. Mauretanien … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
mauritânia — s. f. [Botânica] Planta cariofilácea (diantácea) … Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa
Mauritania — This article is about the North African country. For other uses, see Mauretania. Islamic Republic of Mauritania الجمهورية الإسلامية الموريتانية al Ǧumhūriyyah al ʾIslāmiyyah al Mūrītāniyyah République Islamique de Mauritanie Republik bu Lislaamu… … Wikipedia
Mauritania — El «país de la semana» es Mauritania El país de la semana anterior fue Islas Georgias del Sur y Sandwich del Sur … Wikipedia Español
Mauritania — Mauritanian, adj., n. /mawr i tay nee euh/, n. 1. Official name, Islamic Republic of Mauritania. a republic in W Africa, largely in the Sahara Desert: formerly a French colony; a member of the French Community 1958 66; independent 1960.… … Universalium
MAURITANIA — I. MAURITANIA Africae regio, extrema versus Gaditanum fretum, et Occidentalem Oceanum, in quo Antaeus gigas regnâsse dicitur, ab Hercule victus. Est autem duplex, Caesariensis a Caesarea, et Tingitana, a civitate Tingi. Sic dicta ἀπὸ τοῦ μαυροῦ,… … Hofmann J. Lexicon universale
Mauritania — noun a country in northwestern Africa with a provisional military government; achieved independence from France in 1960; largely western Sahara Desert • Syn: ↑Islamic Republic of Mauritania, ↑Mauritanie, ↑Muritaniya • Derivationally related forms … Useful english dictionary